星期五, 4月 22, 2011

最重要的100個英文字首字根 -- 字根 (3)

關於 英文單字
<目錄>
1. 字首、字根、字尾 <話說前頭篇>
2. 字首、字根 <總整理>
3. 字首、字根 <內容篇>
4. 單字 <再次強調篇>


*** 字首、字根、字尾 <話說前頭篇>
英文字彙架構 摘自許章真 編著 「最重要的100個英文字首字根」
pre.dict.able (p. v)
    字尾 able 形容詞字尾表「可能」
   字根 dict 表「說話」
         字首 pre 表「在前」
※ 常見的構詞型態 (p. xi)
          字根
(字首) +  字根 + 字根  + (字尾)

學習字源分析需知 摘自 經典傳訊「再造英語大革命—字根字彙」
(pp. 172-174)
我們學習字源分析,為的是建立起一套拆解單字、進而記憶單字的系統,不是為研究而研究的語言學家,所以不必去理會某一個字根或字首來字希臘文還是拉丁文,只要容易聯想、好背單字即可。
大多數的英文單字都可以用字根字首的拆解來理解,所以字源分析是非常好用的工具。學起這套工具之後,最好能時時運用,也就是大量去做閱讀,儘量不查字典,碰到生字就拆解一下。

注意事項:
1. 字根字首在組合時會產生「同化」作用,也就是說會互相影響。
例如ad- 這個表示 to, toward 的字首,經常會被後面字根的拼法同化,例如:abbreviate, acclaim, affirm, attain, aggravate, announce...
2. 字根字首組合時兩個母音之間可能會加上一個子音作為連音,
如:rehabilitation (n.) 復健
3. 前後兩個子音相連也有可能會加個母音在中間作為連音,如:pesticide (n.)殺蟲劑
4. 並不是每一個英文單字都是由常用的字根字首組成的。
如單音節單字:eat, walk, typhoon, taboo…


*** 字首、字根總整理
參考書目:1. 再造英語大革命:字根字彙。 經典傳訊文化。
2. 最重要的100個英文字首字根。許章真 編著。書林。
字首
1. ab-, abs- = away, from 分離 2. ad- = to, toward 向前
3. anti- = against 反對 4. bi- = two 二
5. bene-, bon- = good 良好 6. cata- = down, complete 下降,完全
7. circum- = around 環繞 8. co-, col-, com-, con- = together 一起,共同
9. contra-, contro-, counter- = against反對 10. de- = down, complete下降,完全
11. de-, di-, dis- = away, off, not 分離,否定 12. deca-, deci- = ten; tenth 十;十分之一
13. dia- = through, between, across 穿越,居中 14. di-, du- = two 二
15. e-, ec-, ef-, ex-, extra- = out 向外 16. em-, en-, im-, in- = in, upon 進入,在上
17. epi- = upon, toward 在上,朝向 18. fore- = before 前
19. im-, in-, un- = not 不 20. inter- = between, among 居中
21. mal- = bad 惡劣 22. mon-, mono- = one 一
23. ob- = toward, against, over 相對,反對,全面 24. para- = beside, beyond 並列,超越
25. per- = through, thoroughly 穿過,完全 26. post- = after, behind 在後
27. pre- = before 前 28. pro-, pur- = forward, before 向前,在前
29. re- = back, again 向後,再次 30. se- = away, separate 分離
31. sub-, suf-, sup-, sus- = under在下 32. super-, sur- = over, above 在上,超越
33. sym-,syn- = with, together 一起,共同 34. uni- = one 一
35. trans- = across, through, over 橫跨,貫通,轉變


字根
1. act, ag, ig = act, drive 行動,推動 2. anim = breath, mind 氣息,心
3. arch = chief, ancient 首要的,古老的 4. aud = hear 聽
5. bio = life 生命 6. cad, cas, cid = fall, befall 降落,發生
7. cap, ceiv, cep, cept, cip, cup = receive, take 接受,拿取
8. ced(e), ceed, cess = go 去,行進 9. centr = center 中央
10. cert = sure 確信 11. chor = sing 唱
12. cid, cis = cut, kill 切割,殺 13. circum, cycle = around, circle 外圍,圓圈
14. cit = excite, call 激起,喚起 15. civ = ity 城市
16. claim, clam = shout, cry out 喊,呼叫 17. clud, clus = close 關閉
18. cogn, gnos = know 認知 19. cor, cord, cour = heart, courage 心,勇氣
20. corp, corpor = body 身體,團體 21. cours, cur, curs = run 跑動
22. cred = believe相信,信賴 23. cub, cum(b) = lie 躺
24. cur = care, cure; run 照料,治療,懸念;跑 25. dam = harm 傷害
26. demo = people 人們 27. dic, dict = say, speak 說
28. dom = home; control 家;支配 29. duc, duct = lead 領導,導引
30. equ = equal 均等 31. fed, fid = faith 信心
32. fac, fact, fair, feat, fect, feit, fic, fict, fit = do, make 作,造
33. fer = bear, carry 懷有,承受,攜帶 34. fin = limit, end 界限,終結
35. flect, flex = bend 彎曲 36. flu = flow 流動
37. forc, fort = strong 強 38. found, fus = pour, melt 傾流,鎔鑄
39. fract, frag, frang, fring = break 破裂/壞 40. gen = bear/born, kind, race 產生,種類,種族
41. grac, grat = pleasing 快樂 42. grad, gress = go, step 行進,層次,步伐
43. gram, graph = write 書寫 44. it = go, march 行走,行進
45. jac, ject, jet = throw, emit 投擲,射出 46. join, joint, junct = join, connect 連接
47. lect, leg, lex, = read 閱讀 48. lect, lig = choose選擇
49. loc = place 地方 50. locu, log, logue, loqu = speak 說
51. logy = study of 學科 52. luc, lumin, luster = light, brightness亮光
53. magn, maj, max(i) = great 大 54. main, man = hand 手
55. medi = middle 中間 56. mem(or) = remember 記憶
57. ment = mind 心智 58. meter = measure 測量
59. mini, minu = small 小 60. miss, mit = send, throw 送出,投射
61. mob, mom, mot, mov = move 移動,動力 62. nat = born 出生
63. neg = none, not 否定 64. nov = new 新
65. opt = choose 選擇 66. pass, path, pati = feel, suffer 感覺,苦痛
67. ped = foot 腳 68. pel, puls = drive; push 推動,驅使;衝撞
69. pen, pun = punish 懲罰 70. plic, plex, ply = fold, weave 摺疊,編結
71. pend, pens, pond = hang, weigh, pay, consider 懸掛、重量、償付、思量
72. polis, polit = city; government 城市,政府 73. pon, pos, pound = place, put 安置,寄放
74. popul, publ = people 人們 75. port = carry 運送,攜帶
76. press = press 擠壓 77. pri, prim, prin = first 第一
78. quest, qui(r), quis = ask, seek 詢問,尋求 79. rupt = break 破壞
80. reg, rig =rule, king, hard 治理,國王,硬直,嚴厲 81. scribe, scrip(t) = write 書寫
82. secu(t), sequ, sue = follow 跟隨 83. sed, sess, sid = sit, set, live 坐,安置,居住
84. sens, sent = feel, sense 感覺,意識 85. set, sid, sit = sit
86. sign = mark 做記號 87. sist, sta, stitut = stand, place, set 站立,安置,固定
88. soci = group 群體 89. strain, stress, strict, string = draw tight 壓縮,壓榨
90. solu, solv = loosen 放鬆 91. spec, spect, spic = watch, look 觀望,瞻望
92. sta(t), sist = stand 站 93. stim, stinct, sting = mark; prick 做記號;刺
94. stru, struct = build 建築 95. tach, tact, tag, tang = touch 觸摸,接觸
96. tain, ten, tin = hold, keep 保存,固守,堅持 97. tend, tens, tent = stretch 延伸,向前
98. tor, tort = twist 扭曲 99. tract, treat = draw 抽拉,引出,劃線
100. trud, trus = thrust, push 推擠,強迫 101. vac, van, void = empty 空虛,缺乏,空閒
102. vail, val = strong, worth 有力,實價 103. vari = change 變化
104. ven, vent = come (到)來 105. vers, vert = turn, change 轉動,轉變
106. vey, via, voy = way 道路,途徑 107. vict, vinc = conquer 征服
108. vid, view, vis = see, look 看(見),審視 109. vig, vit, viv = life, live 活,生命,精力
110. voc, vok = voice, call 聲音,召喚 111. volu. volv = roll 旋轉,捲繞,轉成


*** 字首、字根—內容篇.. 取自再造英語大革命:字根字彙。 經典傳訊文化。
字首   
1. fore- = before 前                                                      
  forecast (n.) 預報;預測 → fore (before) + cast (throw)
   * My grandmother listens to the weather forecast on the radio each morning.
  foresee (v) 預知;預料 → fore (before) + see
   * It's difficult to foresee what will happen next.
  foremost (a.) 最重要的 → fore (before) + most
   * She was one of the foremost writers of her day.
  forefront (n.) 最前線;最重要的位置 → fore (before) + front
   * He is in the foremost on many social issues.


2. pre- = before 前                                                      
  prevent (v.) 防止 → pre (before) + vent (come)
* To prevent sports injury, it's best to stretch before you exercise.
  predict (v.) 預測 → pre (before) + dict (speak)
* That fortune teller predicted that the couple would break up in two months.
  precise (a.) 精確的 → pre (before) + cise (cut)
* Please be precise when you describe what you did from 7 to 10 last night.
  unprecedented (a.)史無前例的 → un (not) + pre (before) + ced (go) + ented (形容詞詞尾)
* He achieved unprecedented success.


3. post- = after 後                                                      
postpone (v.) 延後 → post (after) + pone (place)
* The meeting was postpone to 3 pm.
  postwar (a.) 戰後的 → post (after) + war
* He did a study on the postwar world economy. 
  postscript (n.) 信末附註;後記(略作P.S.) → post (after) + script (write)
* Dona added a postscript to her letter.
  posterity (n.) 後代 → post (after) + erity (名詞字尾)
* We must try to protect the environment for posterity. 


4. co-, col, com-, con- = together 一起,共同                                                      
  coworker (n.) 同事 → co (together) + work + er (one who)
* I went to a KTV with my coworkers last night.
  collect (v.) 收集 → col (together) +lect (choose)
* Jeff collects unique pieces of art from around the world.
  commute (v.) 通勤 → com (together) + mute (change) 
* She commutes between Taipei and Taoyuan every day. 
  consolidate (v.) 合併 → con (together) + sol (one) + idate (動詞詞尾)
* The two firms consolidated to form a new company.


5. sym-, syn-, = together一起,共同                                 
system (n.) 系統  → sy(s) = syn (together) + stem (stand)
* The flooding caused a total collapse of the MRT system.
  symbol (n.) 象徵 → sym (together) + bol (throw)
* The cross is the main symbol of Christianity. 
  symphony (n.) 交響樂 → sym (together) + phony (sound)
* The orchestra played a Beethoven symphony. 
  symposium (n.) 研討會 → sym (together) + pos (drink) + ium (名詞字尾)
* We're holding a symposium on wireless telecommunications.

1 則留言:

匿名 提到...

感謝喔^^找好久了